Harry's OLD ENGINE #3

Fairbanks Morse and Company 1918

Fairbanks Morse 3 H.P. with Sumter Magneto

Barn Fresh As Found

After Restoration

Fairbanks Morse 3 H.P. "Z" Kerosene Engine

Distinctive Features of the "Z" Throttling Governor
Kerosene Engines (Bulletin H 198 GC)

3 and 6 H. P. Engines:
  • 1. Throttling Governor
  • 2. Built-in Oscillating Magneto
  • 3. Pump Fuel Feed
  • 4. Speed Regulator
  • 5. Removable Bushings in Bearings
  • 6. Close Speed Regulation
  • 7. Igniter fitted by ground and tapered joint

No effort is spared in making these "Z" Engines of the very highest quality in every detail. All parts are precisely made and fitted and standardized for interchangeability. The cylinder and crank case being cast together distributes the weight where needed for strength, giving lightness as well. The finely ground piston and piston rings give exceptional compression. The water cooled cylinder and valves eliminate heat strains and keep the valves tight. The effective lubrication, accessibility and reliability are found in every "Z" Engine.

Use Cheapest Fuel

An engine of 1-1/2 H.P., 3-1/2 H.P. or 6 H.P., to give power at lowest cost, should run on kerosene distillate, coal oil, tops and other cheaper fuels as well as gasoline. These lower grade fuels can only be used economically, however, when the engine is designed and built especially for them, and it was with this principle in view that the "Z" engines were designed.

Throttling Governor

A successful kerosene engine must maintain uniform speed at any load through control of the fuel. The throttling governor on the "Z" engines acts directly on a balanced valve, which regulates the amount of fuel and air passing through the inlet valve into the cylinder. It thus maintains an accurately proportioned mixture for the charge, as well as a uniform cylinder temperature, giving greatest economy and power and a definite uniform speed regardless of the load, even in cold weather.

The Logical Engines for Your Service

Whatever the work; pumping, sawing, grinding, or any of the many duties to be performed, you want it done at lowest cost. As a buyer of farm equipment you know that this "cost" does not stop with first cost. It includes the money you spend to keep the engine running, for fuel, labor, repairs and upkeep. What you get for this money in work done determines whether or not you are obtaining your power at lowest cost.

Buy an engine that will give you all the power you need and more if necessary, one that successfully uses the most economical fuels, requires the least attention, starts quickly and easily at any time, even in cold weather and will do all this faithfully for many years. The Fairbanks-Morse "Z" Engine is the logical engine for you to use because it combines every practical advantage to do your work continuously, conveniently, economically, cleanly and quietly.

All sizes: l-1/2, 3 and 6 H. P. successfully use KER0SENE
also Distillate, Coal Oil, Tops, Gasoline and other Cheaper Fuels

You can grind feed, pump water, shell corn, run your separator, churn, washing machine and many other things about the farm with a Fairbanks-Morse "Z" Engine. The rating is conservative in actual service, the engine readily develops more. Think of this when you buy! Your needs may at any time demand more power. The "Z" gives you this extra help when you want it-offers you this reserve force to complete your work, perhaps saving you the difference in the cost of a larger engine.

Efficiency features: Consider these: throttling governor, built-in oscillating magneto, speed regulator, removable bushings in bearings, close speed regulation, removable water cooled cylinder heads and more. Examine the pictures of the engines, see the graceful, powerful lines, the strength well placed where needed. Imagine this clean-cut, able and reliable worker "on the job" on your farm. Every feature of these wonderful engines does its part to develop maximum power from least fuel.


This information from Fairbanks Morse 2417D is provided as a public service subject to our web site TERMS OF SERVICE.

1. Remove engine from crate, being very careful to avoid damage. In the bundle of parts is the cylinder oil cup which is to be placed on the cylinder oil pipe (on the Closed Jacket Engines a nipple is included which is to be screwed into the cylinder). Put the pulley on the side opposite the governor using the bolts sent. With the Steel Pulleys, small clips are furnished to catch inside the rim so the bolts will hold fast. When it is desired to place the pulley on the governor side, it will be necessary to reverse the small dog in the starter crank so as to use it on the other side.

2. If engine is to be located on a foundation, follow the regular foundation plans, leaving two or three feet of room all round.

3. If the engine is installed in a building the silencer may be removed and the exhaust pipe attached and carried outside. It should be short and with few bends. The silencer must be attached to end of the pipe. Water may collect in long exhaust pipes so a small hole or other drain should be provided at the lowest place. When the pipe is long (20 feet) or has several elbows, the pipe should be increased in size and better results will be observed if a cast iron exhaust pot is installed near the engine.

4. These engines can use as fuel, Gasoline, Motor Spirits, Kerosene and some varieties of Power Distillate.

5. Read the tags on the engine but do not remove them until you are familiar with its operation.


6. Fill fuel tank (49) with the fuel to be used regularly, using the tube and funnel.

7. Put water in hopper, but only enough at first to cover top of cylinder. In cold weather hot water will make the engine easier to start. Tighten cylinder head nuts.

8. Fill oil cup (527) with good gas engine Oil and adjust oiler to feed 12 drops per minute on the 3 H. P. or 20 drops per minute on the 6 H. P. Gradually cut down the amount of oil as the engine be-comes worn in. Fill the four grease cups. Two are on the main bearings (505), a small one is on the cam gear (506) hub. These should be screwed down one or two turns until grease is forced freely into the bearings. The fourth one is on the crank pin (509) bearing.

9. With a hand oil can go over the engine and oil the governor and all other places where there are oil holes, and where one part moves against another.


10. Drain the oil fuel from the fuel reservoir by unscrewing the over-flow valve (105) one or two turns, until the oil fuel runs back to tank. Open cover to see when it is drained. When empty close the overflow valve tightly. Fill the reservoir with gasoline for starting and throw the fuel pump out action by pushing the pump lever (66) back away from its driving screw on the exhaust lever rod, by means of the lock out lever (75). This is located on the cylinder head side of the fuel reservoir. (DRAWING)   (PHOTO)

11. Open fuel throttle valve (76A) about one turn.

12. Set the 'Early and Late' pin with the mark 'L' up indicating late ignition.

NOTICE: Starting cranks are a recipe for disaster. It is preferred to start these engines by manually turning the flywheels. How appropriate that what follows is step number 13. BE CAREFUL!

13. Holding the suction or upper valve open with the left hand, with the starter crank spin the engine. After getting the engine in motion, release the suction valve and half close the air inlet opening in bottom of reservoir with fingers of left hand for one revolution only, and then remove fingers while still continuing to crank. If held longer too much fuel will be drawn in. The mixture will not ignite if there is too much fuel in it, and the fuel must be forced out by cranking.


14. After the engine takes its first impulse remove the starter crank. The igniter should be set on running position with the mark E up - this is the point of early ignition. The throttle should be again adjusted to give as little fuel as the engine will run on. After the engine is running nicely adjust the throttle valve. The position at final test on distillate was with the mark straight down, but it should be adjusted to give as little fuel as the engine will run on. The position varies with the fuel and the temperature.

15. The engine will usually run on oil fuel after using one reservoir full of gasoline. When the engine is warm enough to run on oil fuel the fuel pump should be thrown into action by throwing out the lock-out lever.

16. The water throttle valve on the cylinder head should not be opened except to quiet hard explosions which may be noticed when engine is on heavy continuous load, and only enough to serve the purpose. This valve must be closed a few minutes before stopping engine so that the interior of the cylinder will be dry. The water spray valve is on 6 H. P. engines only.

17. Fill water hopper two-thirds full and replenish this water as it evaporates. It is expected to boil away.


18. To stop engine, first close water throttle valve, then close throttle To Stop. Then close cylinder oiler (527), and in freezing weather, drain out the water.


Engine Parts

19. The cam gear (28) is marked with two center punch marks on face of tooth. The pinion (29) on the crank shaft has one tooth with two center punch marks. This tooth should come between the two marked ones on the large gear. If the engine is taken apart and the marks on the gears cannot be found, or if the gears are replaced, the engine should be timed as follows. Place the crank (25A) in a vertical position and pointing up. Then set the cam gear with the nose of the cam straight up. Next see that there is about 1/16' clearance between the end of the exhaust rod and the adjusting screw in the valve rocker arm. Such a setting should bring the valve timing very nearly as described in paragraph 20 below.

20. The cam should begin to open the exhaust valve 30 degrees to 35 degrees before outer dead center. The cam should close the exhaust valve when the crank is about 5 degrees above the inner dead center. The valve can be turned with the fingers the instant it is lifted from its seat.

21. While operating engine the hopper should not be filled more than three-fourths full of water, otherwise water will splash out more or less when it boils. The water should never be allowed to fall as low as the top of the cylinder wall, as the cylinder will then get too hot. It is to be expected that the water will boil under heavy load and the engine will work properly when the water is boiling. Put in more water as it evaporates.

22. The engine jacket is liable to be broken by freezing if water is left in during cold weather unless non-freezing solution is used.

23. A non-freezing mixture of calcium chloride and water may be used in the jacket. Three pounds of calcium chloride to each gallon of water will not freeze solid at zero Fahrenheit. It is advisable, however, to drain the jacket in freezing weather when the engine is not is use.

24. Each engine is regularly equipped with a cast iron sub-base containing a galvanized steel fuel tank (104) which is sent out piped up complete. The filler opening in the tank is on the side of engine opposite governor. In filling, use the tin funnel and filler tube supplied with the engine. Replace cap after filling to prevent water and foreign matter entering and keep small vent hole in cap open. Water will separate from the oil fuel and remain at the bottom, so the tank should be drained occasionally to remove the water.

25. The suction valve is an ordinary check valve, automatic in its action and has a lift of about 3/8 of an inch. The lift is limited by means of a spring on the valve stem. This valve is also fitted with a friction spring causing a friction on the suction valve spring collar thus retarding the rapid motion of the valve and preventing noise. Oil the friction spring.

26. The exhaust valve like the suction valve, lies in a horizontal position with the stem extending through a guide in the cylinder head. A spring held under compression by a washer and pin on both the suction and exhaust valves holds these valves to their seats. If valve stem shows tendency to stick, squirt a little kerosene on the stem and work it back and forth. Then oil with lubricating oil.

27. Should the engine at any time on starting turn too easily or have lost its compression, it is evident that a leak is taking place, and the suction valve as well as exhaust valve should be examined; they may not seat properly. If they do seat properly examine the piston.

28. If it is necessary to reseat the suction or exhaust valve the cylinder head must be removed and the valve ground with fine abrasive, such as ground glass or emery and oil. Revolve valve on its seat in alternate directions, lifting it from its seat frequently to distribute the abrasive. Carefully clean both valve and seat with gasoline before replacing.

29. Asbestos gaskets hold better if covered with linseed or lubricating oil when applied. After putting on new gasket the nuts should be tightened again when engine is hot.

30. The governor located on the side of the engine base driven from the cam gear, controls the movement of the butterfly valve located in the suction passage in the cylinder head. The governor is fitted with a friction spring, the purpose of which is to steady the governor action. The force of the spring can be easily adjusted by small screw. If there is too much tension the governor will be slow to respond to change in load. If not enough tension, the engine will race. (PHOTO)

31. If it is necessary for any reason to reset the butterfly crank arm it will be well to remove the reservoir first so that the butterfly can be seen. Take cotter pin out of butterfly crank end of governor rod, remove end of governor rod from crank. Pull one governor weight out as far as it will go and then put a wedge under it to hold it in that position. Slightly loosen clamp screw of crank. Close butterfly with finger and set crank so that governor rod lacks 1/16 inch from dropping in hole of crank. Remove wedge from under governor weight. Tighten clamp screw of crank and reassemble parts removed. If the above instructions are followed the engine can, under no condition, run away.

32. The governor normally holds the engine at its rated speed, but each engine is provided with a speed regulator which decreases the speed by screwing the knurled head screw in.


33. If it should be necessary to remove fuel piping, be careful in swinging reservoir and piping out for removal or in replacing same be careful not to bend the fuel nozzle on the reservoir. The fuel nozzle should be straight. The engine would not run properly if the relative position of this nozzle with the governing butterfly valve were changed. (PHOTO)


34. After some months of use the piston may be removed to clean the rings. To do this take off oil shield and unbolt crank bearings. Turn crank to extreme out position. The piston may now be withdrawn. Replace piston in its original position, and all parts in the reverse order from which they were removed. The piston may be cleaned with kerosene or a hot solution of lye and water, the rings loosened and the grooves cleaned. Oil piston well before replacing. In replacing piston turn it bottom side up so that the stop pins can be seen, otherwise the rings may be broken. (PHOTO) Be sure to turn it right side up before connecting up the connecting rod otherwise the pin will get no oil. The rings can be removed from piston by taking three strips of tin about one-half inch wide and six inches long; slip one piece of tin under the middle of the ring and over the ring groove, then with the help of a screw driver the other strips can be slipped under the ends and the rings in turn slipped off the piston.


Fairbanks Morse Carburetor
  • 4A Reservoir Body
  • 21 Overflow Return
  • 24 Fuel Line
  • 60 Reservoir Cover
  • 65 Reservoir Fuel Pump Plunger
  • 66 Reservoir Fuel Pump Plunger Lever
  • 67 Reservoir Fuel Pump Plunger Lever Fulcrum Pin
  • 69 Fuel Pump Plunger Cap
  • 75 Reservoir Fuel Pump Plunger Lever Lockout Lever
  • 76A Reservoir Needle Valve (Fuel Mixture)
  • 105 Reservoir Overflow Valve
  • 201 Butterfly Valve Shaft Washer
  • 203 Butterfly Valve (Throttle)
  • 204 Butterfly Valve Shaft
  • 206A Butterfly Valve Shaft Lever
  • 223 Nozzle and Bushing
  • 300 Reservoir Plunger Spring
  • 302 Reservoir Pump Valve
  • 311 Reservoir Needle Valve Spring
  • 314 Reservoir Cover Spring
  • 326A Butterfly Valve Torsion Spring

The large knob on the top controls a valve that drains the bowl back into the fuel tank through (21) the return line. The cover (60) is loosely fitted under this knob with a spring (314). The return valve (105) is hollow and it has a hole at fuel level to also return excess fuel to the tank while running. The pump plunger (65) operates with two check balls (302) and a spring (300) to bring fuel up from the sub-base tank through (24) the supply line. This brass plunger is a tight fit and it can easily become stuck. It is hollow with a cap (69) and it expels fuel into the bowl through a hole half way up its side. The lock out lever (75) is used to block the motion of the plunger so as to keep kerosene from the lower tank from mixing with the gasoline in the bowl while starting and warming up the engine. You can use gasoline in the lower tank instead of kerosene and manually pump the plunger to fill the bowl before starting the engine. Use caution when assembling that the jet pipe (223) does not restrict the throttle plate (203A) from full movement.

SUMTER Plugoscillator: (PHOTO)

Sumter Plugoscillator Magneto and Igniter
magneto Timing Sumter Magneto

TIMING: Turn the Early/Late eccentric so that the letter E is up, indicating the early spark position. Then rotate the flywheels in the running direction until the Plugoscillator snaps. The SPARK mark on the flywheel should be over the push rod. If not, proceed as follows:

Loosen the clamp nut and adjust the trip finger bracket forward or backward on the exhaust push rod as may be necessary. Then try the timing again to make sure that it is correct. This is the only adjustment that is required on the entire ignition apparatus.

Be sure to retighten the clamp nut so that the trip finger bracket cannot slide on the exhaust rod, and be sure that the knife edges line up. The trip finger engages the trip and break lever in the notch and is tripped by the projection on the break finger moving downward and pushing it from the notch. Make sure that the mounting nut which clamps the Plugoscillator into the engine combustion chamber is kept tight.

Fairbanks Morse 3 H.P. Brass Tag from FRONT of Hopper


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